Jul 5, 2016

The Best Method for Growing Potatoes

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 Potatoes are an important part of the American diet, yet an awful lot of people don't grow their own. There are many of good reasons to change that; the first is that potatoes rapidly absorb whatever is in their soil, so if you're buying commercially grown potatoes, all the pesticides and man-made fertilizers that are used on them are readily found in the vegetable you're eating. Also, organic potatoes are hard to come by in many regions, and are considerably more expensive. Finally, there are now some GMO potatoes sold in grocery stores, and they are unmarked, of course.

The good news is, there's more than one way to grow potatoes at home. You don't need a huge patch of land to grow excellent, organic potatoes. On the other hand, the Internet is full of bad advice on potato growing methods...so let me save you time, energy, and money by sorting through the various methods for you.


The Potato Box

Potato grow boxes. (Courtesy of
You may have seen a dramatic claim that you can "grow 100 lbs. of potatoes in just 4 square feet" of space. It is seemingly everywhere online. The first time I read about this method, I got pretty excited - but after I researched a bit, I discovered it's not as wonderful as it sounds. No, I didn't try this method myself; rather, I spoke to gardeners all over the U.S. who'd tried the method...and failed. They followed the directions perfectly, but got no where near the promised 100 lbs. of potatoes. Many only got 10 or 15 lbs.

After talking with these gardeners - all of them experienced vegetable growers - I came to several conclusions. One is that the original source (and many of the imitators) don't mention what type of potatoes to grow in the box. To make the box work well, you must choose late season varieties. These will take 90 days or longer to mature, but they'll "set tubers" throughout their growing season. (Short season varieties set fewer tubers before the plant dies back.)

You must also plant more than one layer of seed potatoes in the box and cover no more than 1/3 of the stems and leaves at a time. Using late season potatoes, some gardeners have succeed in growing 80+ lbs. of potatoes using a potato box.


Potato Sacks
This method is very like the potato box, except the container is a burlap sack. You can see an example of this method over at Home Grown Fun. One problem particular to this method is drainage - water pours out of the bags, not really letting the soil absorb much moisture. If you still want to experiment with this method, use a drip irrigation method. Yield will depend upon the size of the bag; a large bag will yield less than a well-planted potato box.
Potatoes growing in a garbage can. (Courtesy of Mad Mod Smith)

Garbage Can Potatoes

Here, a garbage can is the growing container. To work properly, though, you'll first need to use an electric drill to put plenty of holes in the bottom and sides of the can. Place a little gravel on the bottom of the can, or place the can on top of some bricks so drainage is improved. Add a little soil to the bottom, plant the seed potatoes, and add dirt as they grow. This method works about as well as a potato box.


Potato Tower

This method uses wire panels (like chicken wire) with potatoes planted in loose soil on the bottom. Straw is placed over the potato plants as they grow. (Some people put straw only on the edges of the tower and use compost or good soil in the center, so the plants mostly come into contact with the soil and the straw really just holds the soil in place.) You can see an example of a potato tower here.

Potatoes growing in tires. (Courtesy of Tony Buser)
If you have little space for growing potatoes, this is an acceptable method, but don't expect the huge yields some people claim. To up your chances of a good yield, use late season potatoes, plant more than one layer of potatoes, and never cover up more than 1/3 of the stems and leaves.


Potato Tires
For this method, an old tire is placed flat on top of the soil. Additional soil (and seed potatoes) are placed inside the center of the tire. As the potatoes grow, more tires and soil are added on top of the first tire. This is one method I've never tried because I just don't like the idea of the tires leaching into the soil of any edible tuber. Expect results similar to previous methods.


Grow Bag Potatoes
Again, this method is very similar to the ones I've already mentioned, except you're using a store bought "grow bag" as your planter. These grow bags are made from special, porous fabric. (Here are some that I similar to the ones I use.) I've seen tutorials for making your own, but I don't think they'd work at all the same, because the genius of these bags is their fabric; it seems to encourage potatoes to grow more tubers than other container methods I've tried. For best results, use late season potatoes, plant more than one layer of seed potatoes, and never cover up more than 1/3 of the stems and leaves. Also be sure to use taller grow bags. I have had yields of 25+ lbs. per grow bag.

Potatoes grown traditionally. (Courtesy of Ishikawa Ken)

Old Fashioned In the Ground Potatoes

If you do this right, it will result in the highest yield of potatoes. The down side is that it takes more space than other methods.

The traditional method is this: Dig some trenches in your garden, ideally about 20 - 36 inches apart, as space allows. The trenches should be about 6 - 8 inches deep and 3 inches wide. Plant potato seeds in the trenches, about 12 inches apart. Cover with 3 - 4 inches of soil. As the potatoes grow, add more soil to cover much of the plant.

Or, you can plant potato hills: Designate a circular area for the potatoes and plant as described in the row method.

More Tips for Growing Potatoes 

* Yes, you can use store bought potatoes for planting, but your yields will be lower. Store bought potatoes are sprayed with chemicals the help prevent them from sprouting and slow growth.

* For best results, buy certified seed potatoes. Not only will they grow better than store bought potatoes, but they are far less likely to develop disease problems.

The bumps where potatoes will eventually sprout are called "eyes." (Courtesy of Steve Johnson)
* Wherever you grow potatoes, give them full sun (at least 6 hours a day).

* Some late season potatoes to try: Kennebec, Katahdin, Butte, All Blue, Bintje, Diseree, German Butterball, Purple Peruvian, and King Harry.
Bintje

Read more at Gardening Know How: Types Of Potatoes – What Are Late, Mid And Early Season Potatoes? http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/potato/types-of-potatoes.htm,
Bintje

Read more at Gardening Know How: Types Of Potatoes – What Are Late, Mid And Early Season Potatoes? http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/potato/types-of-potatoes.htm
Bintje

Read more at Gardening Know How: Types Of Potatoes – What Are Late, Mid And Early Season Potatoes? http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/potato/types-of-potatoes.htm,

* Whatever soil potatoes are planted in should be light and airy. This allows roots to spread and tubers to produce more abundantly.


* Potatoes can't grow until the soil is 45 degrees F. If you plant before that time, especially if you plant directly in the ground, your seed potatoes are likely to rot.

* Prepare your seed potatoes correctly: Cut them into small pieces, making sure each piece has at least two eyes. Leave plenty of potato around the eyes, since the new sprouts will feed off those pieces. (Seed potatoes that are about the size of an egg can be planted whole.)

* Chitting (pre-sprouting) can increase yields: Cut up seed potatoes about two weeks before planting and place them in a single layer on some newspaper, eyes pointing up, in a warm location (about 70 degrees F.), away from direct sunlight.

* The earliest you can plant potatoes is two weeks before your last frost date.

* One of the most common mistakes when growing potatoes is to plant them too late, especially if using late season varieties.

* Don't "hill" (or add soil to) the potato plantings until the plants are 8 inches tall.

* Water well, but it's best to water in the morning, so the plant can dry out before the cool temperatures of evening. Watering too much or in the evening can result in potato rot.
Kennebec potatoes are my favorite to grow.

* If you want potatoes that can be stored, don't dig them up until 2 or 3 weeks after the foliage dies back. Some variety of potatoes store better than others; Russet, Yukon Gold, Red Pontiac, and (my favorite) Kennebec store well. Before storing, allow potatoes to sit in a single layer in a dry, cool place for 3 days.

* Don't store potatoes near onions because both veggies release gases that cause the other to spoil faster. Store potatoes in a cool, dark, location.



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