Right now is the best time to do a garden soil test. Just grab an inexpensive soil testing kit from a garden center (or here, on Amazon) and follow the directions. (It's easy!) If your soil is depleted of any major nutrients, the test kit will also explain what to add to the soil to correct that. Be sure to use organic nutrients, since they break down slowly in the soil and help encourage worms and other good-for-your-garden bugs.
#2. Add Leaves
|Courtesy of David Goehring and Wikipedia Commons.|
You know all those leaves that are dropping like crazy from the trees (or soon will be)? They are the perfect soil amendment! So don't rake them up and put them at the curb. Spread them over your garden soil. Seriously, that's all you have to do. If you want to speed the process of deterioration, run over the leaves with your lawn mower a few times, to break them up.
#3. Add Food Scraps
Some people like to add finished compost to the garden at this time of year, but I save compost for the spring, when it will give my new plants a huge boost of nutrients. In the fall, I prefer to bury food scraps in the garden. Anything you'd compost, like fruit and veggie scraps - and even cardboard - is perfect for this. (See a complete list of compostable items here.) Just dig a little trench, add the scraps, and cover them. By spring, they will have decomposed. In the meantime, they slowly add nutrients to the soil and attract worms and beneficial bacteria.
|Clover cover crop. Courtesy of Quadell and Wikipedia Commons.|
You might think that letting the soil sit bare for a "rest" is the best thing you can do. But the truth is, planting the right crop is far better for the soil. "Cover crops" are crops that help prevent soil erosion during winter, crowd out weeds, and feed the soil in the very early spring when you cut them down and turn them over into the soil. Some popular cover crops include annual rye, clover, buckwheat, and hairy vetch. Learn more about cover crops at the University of Oregon Extension Office site.